Back ] Up ] Next ]
Home
Contents
Background
Past Work
Silicon Info
Contact

 

Silicon Info: Growth Methods - A Comparison

The table summarizes some of the technological characteristics of the methods used to grow silicon crystals for photovoltaic applications. A variety of approaches have viability for further development, which is a strong point for Si PV commercial growth. Cost-driven tradeoffs are made in Si PV crystal-growth technology. This is evident in both the ingot and sheet-growth approaches.  For example, the highest throughput ingot method, electromagnetic casting, yields lower cell efficiencies than the slower CZ growth method because of smaller grain sizes.  A similar situation exists with ribbons and sheets, where substrate melt shaping has tremendous throughput potential.  Again, the grain size and cell efficiency are smaller than for some of lower throughput ribbon methods.  The diversity and redundancy in approaches is healthy for the industry and increases the probability that further reductions in PV module cost will be achieved.

  

Method

Width

(cm)

Weight

(kg)

Growth
Rate

(mm/min)

Growth Rate

(kg/h)

Throughput

(m2/day)*

Energy Use

(kWh/kg)

Energy Use

(kWh/m2)**

Efficiency 

(Typical, best %)

Float Zone

 

15

50

2-4

4

80

30

36

<18, 24

Czochralski

 

15

50

0.6-1.2

1.5

30

18-40

21-48

<15, 20

Directional Solidification

69

240

0.1-0.6

3.5

70

8-15

9-17

<14, 18

Electromagnetic Casting

35

400

1.5-2

30

600

12

35

<14, 16

Dendritic Web

 

5

--

12-20

--

1

--

200

<15, 17

Capillary Die Growth

80

--

15-20

--

20

--

20

14, 16

Edge-Supported Pulling

8

--

12-20

--

1.7

--

55

<13, 16

Substrate Melt Shaping

20

--

1000-6000

--

>1000

--

--

<12, 16

Thin-Layer Si

 

    2

--

10-3 ^

--

--

--

--

    --, 13

  *Areal throughput for ingots assumes 20 wafers/cm
**Only the energy for growth is included

-- indicates data are not available or not appropriate
^
deposition rate perpendicular to the substrate

 


    Siliconsultant, P.O. Box 145

 

3, Evergreen, CO 80437 USA                               e-mailted_ciszek@siliconsultant.com

Home

Contents

This page was last updated on November 08, 2013

Hit Counter